When you have revised your final project sufficiently, and your first and second reader have indicated that it is ready to defend, then you should schedule the oral defense. Normally, the oral defense is a meeting or conference call with your first and second readers. The chair/coordinator of your program also may participate. It begins with a short presentation in which you review what you set out to do, how you see your work and what implications it has for other work in a similar area. The rest of the oral defense consists of a conversation about the substance, details and implications of your final project. You may be asked to connect your work to information from previous courses, to identify the policy issues (policy studies students only) or specific theories in your work, or to discuss what you would do next if you were to continue your research/work.
At the conclusion of the oral defense, the first and second readers will vote pass or fail. If you fail the oral defense, you will need to request another one and indicate what you will do in the meantime to prepare for it. If you pass, then you need to revise your final project according to the suggestions made by your readers. After approval of the revisions, you should prepare a final original manuscript for processing (see above).